Dealing with medical emergencies can be difficult and sometimes life-threatening. It’s important to equip yourself with the knowledge of how to treat common medical emergencies in order to keep your family, friends, and yourself safe. In this article, we’ll explore a variety of common medical emergencies and discuss the best practices for treating them. Whether you want to become more informed about what symptoms are worth worrying about or just better understand how to deal if something does happen, here’s all the information you need on how to take control of these situations.
Table of Contents
- Breathing difficulties
- Heart attack
- Broken bones
- Allergic reaction
- Asthma attack
- Bites and stings
- Stomach ache
Bleeding is among the most critical medical emergencies that can occur in a survival situation. It can happen in different ways, from a small cut to a severe laceration or an arterial injury. Consequently, it is essential to understand the various ways of controlling bleeding to prevent excessive blood loss, which could be fatal.
The first step in treating bleeding is to apply pressure directly to the wound using a clean cloth, gauze, or your hand. This pressure should be consistent and firm for at least 5-10 minutes until the bleeding stops. If the pressure doesn’t work, try elevating the affected limb if possible, as this can help reduce the flow of blood to the wound.
In cases where direct pressure and elevation does not work, a tourniquet becomes necessary. A tourniquet should be applied to the affected limb between the wound and the heart, and it should be tightened until the bleeding stops. However, it is important to ensure that the tourniquet is not left on for more than two hours, as it can cause permanent damage to the limb.
Another technique to stop bleeding in a survival situation is to use hemostatic agents. These agents are made of materials that react with blood to encourage clotting. They come in various forms such as powders, dressings, and gauze, and they work by applying them directly to the wound. However, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and use only FDA approved agents.
Here is a list of steps one should take to stop bleeding in a survival situation:
- Apply direct pressure to the wound with gauze, cloth, or your bare hand.
- Elevate the injured area above heart level if possible.
- Use a tourniquet if direct pressure and elevation aren’t successful.
- Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or bandage and secure it in place with tape or cloth ties.
- Seek medical attention immediately if the bleeding does not stop.
Breathing difficulties can be a serious medical emergency in a survival situation. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as lung infections, allergic reactions, or even physical trauma. Whatever the cause, it is crucial to act fast and provide appropriate treatment to the affected person.
One of the most common ways to cure breathing difficulties in a survival situation is through the use of oxygen therapy. This involves providing the person with a source of clean, breathable air to help support their breathing. This can be done using equipment such as an oxygen tank or by creating makeshift breathing apparatus such as a simple mask that can be attached to a bottle of compressed air.
Another way to provide assistance with breathing difficulties is to use bronchodilators. These are medications that help to relax the muscles in the airways, allowing for easier breathing. Some common bronchodilator medications include albuterol and salmeterol. These medications can be administered via inhalers or nebulizers and can quickly provide relief to those experiencing difficulty breathing but usually only asthmatic patients are prescribed with these medicines. Unless you are asthmatic, you are not likely to have access to these medicines in a survival situation.
Here are some natural bronchodilators that can help relieve breathing difficulties:
- Ginger – Ginger is a powerful bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory that helps to open up the airways.
- Peppermint – Consuming peppermint or inhaling its steam can help relax bronchial muscles to promote better airflow.
- Garlic – Garlic has been used as a traditional remedy for chest congestion and inflammation.
- Turmeric – Turmeric contains compounds called curcurminoids, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that can help relax the airways.
- Honey – Honey’s thick consistency can help coat the throat and reduce irritations caused by coughing and soreness.
In certain situations, such as severe allergic reactions or asthma attacks, it may be necessary to administer epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). This medication acts quickly to open up the airways and improve breathing. It is important to note that while epinephrine can be a lifesaving medication, it should only be used in situations where it is absolutely necessary.
Here are some natural epinephrines that help to stimulate the body’s ability to breathe more easily:
- Caffeine – Caffeine acts as a stimulant that helps to open airways and increase alertness.
- Ginseng – Ginseng is known for its energizing effects and can help improve lung function during times of stress or fatigue.
- Licorice Root – Licorice root contains compounds that act as natural epinephrines, which can help the body relax the bronchial muscles in order to allow for easier breathing.
- Green Tea – Green tea contains natural epinephrine called EGCG, which has been shown to reduce inflammation and decrease respiratory distress in certain individuals.
- Vitamin B6 – Vitamin B6 is believed to help increase oxygen flow throughout the body, which can improve breathing abilities.
In addition to these medical interventions, there are a number of non-medical ways to help someone experiencing breathing difficulties. These may include providing the person with a calm and quiet environment, helping them to relax, and encouraging slow and steady breathing.
It is also important to remember to call for professional medical help as soon as possible. While these interventions may provide temporary relief, they are not a substitute for proper medical treatment. In a survival situation, it is important to be prepared with a first aid kit and knowledge of basic emergency medical procedures. By taking the appropriate steps, it is possible to effectively treat breathing difficulties and ensure the best possible outcomes for those who are affected.
Here is a list of steps to take when dealing with breathing difficulties in a survival situation:
- Remain calm and take slow, deep breaths.
- Sit or lie down in the most comfortable position possible.
- Place one hand on the chest and the other over the nose and mouth. Concentrate on counting out each breath until you are feeling more relaxed.
- Place a cold cloth or ice pack over your forehead and face. This will help to alleviate some of the discomfort associated with labored breathing.
- If possible, open a window in order to increase airflow into the room.
- Seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or do not improve after several minutes of rest.
Heart attack is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention. It occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries leading to reduced blood flow to the heart. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, and even death if left untreated.
A heart attack can happen suddenly and unexpectedly, and it can occur in people of any age. The leading cause of heart attack is due to lifestyle factors such as unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, and smoking.
If you or someone around you is experiencing a heart attack in a survival situation, there are several ways you can help treat it.
Firstly, it’s important to keep the person calm and relaxed. This will help reduce the workload on the heart and prevent further damage. Place the person in a comfortable position and make sure they are breathing comfortably.
If you have aspirin available, have the person chew slowly and swallow one tablet. Aspirin can help prevent further blood clotting and reduce the severity of a heart attack.
If the heart attack is induced by hypothermia then it’s also crucial to keep the person warm and dry. Hypothermia can put extra stress on the heart and lead to complications. Place blankets over the person and keep them away from wet or cold environments.
If professional medical help is not available, another option is to perform CPR. CPR can help keep oxygen flowing to the brain and other vital organs until medical help arrives. Perform chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and give rescue breaths if possible.
Another way to treat a heart attack is to use natural remedies such as cayenne pepper, garlic, and turmeric. These herbs have anti-inflammatory properties and can help improve blood circulation. However, it’s important to note that natural remedies should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment.
Here are some steps to follow in a survival situation if you or someone else is having a heart attack:
- Call 911 or your local emergency services number as soon as possible.
- If available, administer any prescribed medicines from the doctor such as Nitroglycerin tablets or Aspirin.
- Place one hand on the person’s chest and apply pressure for two minutes, then repeat with the other hand.
- Keep oxygen levels up by opening windows and giving plenty of room to breathe.
- Have the person lie down and help them remain calm by talking gently to them.
- Monitor the person until medical help arrives.
In conclusion, a heart attack is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Remember, in any medical emergency, swift action and a calm demeanor can save lives.
A stroke can happen to anyone at any age, regardless of their health status. It is a medical emergency that can occur in a survival situation too, and it’s essential to know how to treat it on the spot before professional first aid arrives.
A stroke occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted, either by a blood clot or bleeding in the brain. The symptoms of a stroke can vary depending on which part of the brain is affected. Common symptoms include sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech, loss of balance, and severe headache.
If someone has a stroke in a survival situation, the first thing you need to do is to call for help if possible. However, if help is not near, there are some measures you can take to treat the stroke while waiting for professional medical care.
One way of curing Stroke in a survival situation is by following the F.A.S.T. method, which stands for Face, Arms, Speech, and Time. You need to ask the person to smile to check if one side of their face droops. Ask them to raise both arms to check if one arm falls or drifts down. Also, ask them to repeat a simple sentence to check if their speech is slurred or unusual. Lastly, you need to call for help immediately and provide any basic treatment you can.
Another way of curing Stroke is through acupressure, which is the application of pressure to specific body points. The pressure points for a stroke are located on the neck, the back of the head, and the palms of the hands. Applying pressure on these areas can help improve the blood flow and relieve the symptoms.
Common points used to support stroke rehabilitation and recovery include:
- GB 20 – located at the occipital ridge (where the nape meets the head), this point helps relieve stress and tension in the head and neck area.
- ST 36 – located four fingers below the kneecap on the outer edge of the shinbone. This point helps to alleviate fatigue, increase energy levels and improve overall well-being.
- LV 3– located behind your ankle crease, this point is helpful for reducing emotional unrest, calming nerves and improving digestion.
- BL 17– located between your shoulder blades, this point can help reduce tightness in the chest muscles, alleviate anxiety and reduce fatigue.
If the person experiencing a stroke has high blood pressure, they can chew on a small piece of garlic, ginger, or aspirin. These home remedies can reduce blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for stroke. However, it is medically advised to keep your blood pressure medications with you whenever you go on out into the wilderness.
Here are some steps to follow in a survival situation if you or someone else is having a stroke:
- Call 911 or your local emergency services number as soon as possible.
- Check for signs of stroke – these include drooping on one side of the face, inability to smile, slurring speech and difficultly raising arms above head.
- If available, administer any prescribed medicines from the doctor such as aspirin tablets or clot-busting drugs.
- Place the person in a comfortable position with their head slightly elevated and feet elevated as well.
- Keep oxygen levels up by opening windows and giving plenty of room to breathe.
- Monitor the person’s breathing and heart rate until medical help arrives.
In conclusion, treating a stroke in a survival situation is entirely possible. Knowing the symptoms and taking preventive measures like maintaining blood pressure under control and adopting a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of a stroke. These first-aid measures can save someone’s life, and it’s essential to spread awareness of stroke, a disease that can affect anyone at any time.
Broken bones can occur in a variety of ways in a survival situation. From taking a nasty fall while hiking to being involved in a car accident on the way to your survival shelter, broken bones are a serious medical emergency that require immediate attention. Luckily, there are several ways to treat broken bones on the spot before professional first aid arrives.
One of the most important things to do when treating a broken bone is to keep the injured party still and calm. Moving around too much can exacerbate the fracture and cause further damage. If possible, try to immobilize the broken bone as quickly as possible. This can be done using a splint made from materials on hand, like sturdy branches or strips of cloth.
Another way to stabilize a broken bone is to create a makeshift sling to keep the injured limb immobile. A sling can be made by tying one piece of cloth around the neck and using another piece to support the injured arm or leg in a comfortable position.
In addition to immobilizing the broken bone, it is also important to manage pain and swelling. Cold compresses can be applied if available, or even a makeshift ice pack can be made by wrapping ice or frozen vegetables in a towel. Pain relievers like ibuprofen or aspirin can also be administered if available.
It is important to note that these methods can only be used as a temporary solution until professional medical attention is available. Broken bones require proper medical attention to ensure that they heal correctly and do not cause further issues down the line. In a survival situation, it is important to have knowledge of basic first aid and to have a well-stocked medical kit at the ready.
Here are some steps to follow in a survival situation if you or someone else has a broken bone:
- Check for signs of fracture – these include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising and inability to move the affected limb.
- Apply firm pressure with a clean cloth or bandage to the bleeding site.
- Splint the area above and below the injury to help immobilize the bone.
- If available, apply ice packs to reduce swelling and inflammation.
- Elevate the affected limb slightly above heart level as much as possible.
- Monitor and record vital signs such as breathing rate and pulse until medical help arrives.
Remember to always prioritize safety and to be prepared with the necessary knowledge and supplies to handle medical emergencies during your survival journey.
Poisoning is a serious medical emergency that can strike at any time, especially in a survival situation where you may not have access to immediate medical attention. Poisoning can occur in a variety of ways, such as ingesting toxic substances, inhaling poisonous gases, or even through contact with certain plants or animals.
One of the most important things to remember when dealing with poisoning is to identify the source of the poison quickly. This can be tricky, especially if you are not sure what you have been exposed to. Some common signs of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, shortness of breath, and dizziness. If you or someone you are with is experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to act quickly.
There are several ways to cure poisoning in a survival situation, depending on the type of poison and the severity of the symptoms. Here are a few options:
Activated Charcoal: Activated charcoal is a natural remedy that can help absorb toxins and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream. You can usually find activated charcoal in pill form at your local health food store. Simply crush up the pills, mix with water, and drink to help detoxify your system.
Milk Thistle: Milk Thistle is another natural remedy that can help cure poisoning. Milk Thistle can help protect liver cells from toxic substances, which can be especially helpful in cases of food poisoning or alcohol poisoning. You can find Milk Thistle supplements at your local health food store.
Hydration: Whether you are dealing with food poisoning or exposure to toxic chemicals, staying hydrated is crucial. Drinking plenty of water or electrolyte drinks like Gatorade can help flush toxins out of your system and prevent dehydration.
Herbal Remedies: Certain herbs like peppermint, ginger, and chamomile can help soothe the stomach and alleviate nausea and vomiting caused by poisoning. You can usually find these herbs in tea form at your local health food store.
Here are some steps to follow in a survival situation if you or someone else is poisoned:
- Identify the source of the poisoning.
- Seek medical help immediately if possible.
- If medical help is not readily available, contact your local poison control center for instructions.
- Follow first aid instructions – these may include giving fluids, applying icebags and placing the person in certain positions depending on the type of poisoning.
- Collect samples of any substances involved (if possible) and bring them with you to the hospital or emergency room for further analysis.
- Monitor vital signs such as breathing rate and pulse until medical help arrives.
Remember, it is always better to err on the side of caution and seek professional medical attention if you are not sure how to treat the poisoning on your own.
Allergic reactions can happen at any time, in any place, with no warning. They can be mild or severe, and in some cases, they can even be life-threatening. In a survival situation, it is even more critical to know how to recognize and treat allergic reactions on the spot.
Allergic reactions occur when the immune system overreacts to a foreign substance, such as a food, medication, insect venom, or environmental allergens such as pollen or dust. The body produces an excessive amount of histamine, which causes symptoms such as itching, swelling, hives, nausea, and difficulty breathing.
One of the most effective ways to cure an allergic reaction in a survival situation is to identify and remove the allergen. For example, if someone experiences a reaction after eating a particular food, it is essential to remove that food immediately, as well as any cross-contamination from other food or surfaces. If the reaction is due to an insect sting or bite, the stinger must be removed carefully, using tweezers, and the area should be washed with soap and water.
Another way to treat an allergic reaction in a survival situation is to manage the symptoms. Antihistamines are readily available over-the-counter and can be taken orally or as a topical cream. Corticosteroid creams can also reduce the inflammation and itching associated with allergic reactions. In severe cases, epinephrine (adrenaline) can be used as a lifesaving measure to reduce swelling and open airways.
Here are some natural antihistamines that may be helpful in relieving allergy symptoms:
- Butterbur – this herb has been used to treat hay fever, asthma, and other respiratory allergies.
- Quercetin – this plant pigment is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Vitamin C – this is an essential vitamin and antioxidant that helps reduce the severity of allergic reactions.
- Bromelain – this is a natural enzyme found in pineapple and is believed to help reduce inflammation caused by allergies.
- Nettle leaf – nettle tea has been traditionally used to treat a range of allergy symptoms, including sneezing, itchy eyes, and runny nose.
It is crucial to keep in mind that allergic reactions can quickly escalate, and it is important to act quickly. If someone experiences difficulty breathing or has a swollen tongue or throat, it is crucial to call for emergency medical assistance immediately. Even in a survival situation, it is essential to do everything possible to get the person professional medical attention as quickly as possible.
In conclusion, it is essential to know how to recognize and treat an allergic reaction in a survival situation. Removing the allergen, managing symptoms with antihistamines and corticosteroid creams can help mitigate the effects of an allergic reaction. Still, it is important to remember that urgent medical attention may be necessary in some cases.
Burns are one of the most common medical emergencies that can occur in a survival situation. They can be a result of various situations such as exposure to direct sunlight, touching hot objects or liquids, flames, and even from electric shocks. Whatever the cause may be, burns can cause extreme pain and discomfort, and if left untreated, can even become infected.
If you find yourself in a survival situation and have a burn, there are several ways to treat it. One of the most common ways to treat a burn is to immerse the affected area in cool water. This will help to reduce the heat and soothe the pain. If you do not have access to water, you can use a cool, damp cloth to cool the affected area.
Another way to treat a burn is to use natural remedies such as aloe vera or honey. Both of these ingredients have anti-inflammatory properties and can help to soothe the skin. Simply apply a layer of aloe vera or honey directly to the affected area and let it sit for 15-20 minutes before rinsing off.
If the burn is severe or covers a large area of the body, seek professional medical attention as soon as possible. In the meantime, cover the affected area with a clean, dry cloth to prevent infection.
It is important to note that prevention is always better than cure. When in a survival situation, avoid contact with hot objects or liquids and always protect yourself from the sun by wearing protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly.
Here are some steps one can take to treat burns in a survival situation:
- Cool the burned area with cold water, but avoid using ice directly on the burn.
- Apply an aloe vera based cream or ointment to reduce itching and burning sensations.
- Loosely cover the burnt area with a sterile gauze pad or clean cloth.
- Take over-the-counter painkillers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen for minor burns.
- Drink plenty of fluids when treating a burn.
- Watch out for signs of infection such as redness, swelling, fever, and increasing pain and seek medical help if necessary.
In conclusion, burns can be a painful and dangerous medical emergency in a survival situation. Remember to always take preventative measures to avoid burns in the first place.
Asthma attack can be a life-threatening medical emergency, especially in a survival situation where immediate medical attention might not be available. It’s important to understand what causes an asthma attack and what steps can be taken to manage it.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory illness that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, making it difficult for air to flow through. The condition can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, exercise, stress, pollution, and even weather changes. When someone with asthma comes into contact with a trigger, it can cause their airways to overreact resulting in an asthma attack.
So, what can you do if someone is having an asthma attack in a survival situation? Here are a few possible ways to cure it:
1. Medications: If the person has any prescribed inhalers, make sure they use it immediately. Inhalers containing bronchodilators can help relax the airway muscles and make breathing easier. In the event that there is no inhaler available, try to look for other medicines that can act as bronchodilators such as caffeine or ephedrine.
2. Herbs: Certain herbs such as ginger, garlic, and licorice have been known to have anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce airway inflammation during an asthma attack. Make sure to consult with a medical professional before using any herbs as a remedy.
3. Relaxation techniques: During an attack, the person might feel anxious, which can make breathing even more difficult. Encourage them to practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or visualization to help reduce stress and promote relaxation.
4. Reduce exposure to triggers: If possible, try to remove the trigger that is causing the asthma attack. For example, if the person is allergic to pollen, move them away from the source of pollen or cover their nose and mouth with a cloth or mask.
It’s important to note that asthma attacks can vary in intensity and duration. Therefore, it’s crucial to monitor the person’s condition closely and act accordingly. However, If the person’s condition does not improve, seek professional help as soon as possible or at the earliest opportunity.
Electrocution is a serious medical emergency that can happen in a survival situation. It occurs when an electric current passes through the body, causing damage to the organs and tissues. There are various ways in which electrocution can occur, including direct contact with electrical wires, lightning strikes, and exposure to high-voltage power lines.
If you or someone you know is electrocuted, it’s crucial to act fast. Here are some possible ways to cure electrocution in a survival situation:
1. Turn off the power source: The first thing to do is to shut off the power source. If the person is in contact with an electrical wire, do not touch them or the wire. Use a wooden or non-conductive object to separate them from the power source.
2. Call for help: Call for emergency medical assistance as soon as possible. Give your location and explain the situation to the operator.
3. Check the person’s vital signs: Check if the person is breathing and has a pulse. If not, start CPR immediately.
4. Give first aid: If the person is conscious, give first aid. If the person has burns, cover the affected area with a sterile dressing. If the person is experiencing seizures, protect their head from injury and turn them onto their side to prevent choking.
5. Monitor the person’s condition: Keep a close eye on the person’s condition until professional medical help arrives. If the person’s condition deteriorates, be prepared to administer further first aid.
In conclusion, electrocution can happen unexpectedly in a survival situation, but quick action can save lives.
Bites and Stings
Bites and stings can happen in a survival situation and require immediate medical attention. They can cause pain, inflammation, swelling, itching, or even an allergic reaction. Depending on the type of bite or sting, the person might experience nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, or other severe symptoms that require professional medical help.
Here are some possible ways to cure bites and stings in a survival situation:
1. Identify the type of bite/sting: It’s important to identify the type of bug that caused the bite or sting as different bugs require different treatments.
2. Remove any remaining parts of the insect: If possible, carefully remove any remaining parts of the insect, such as the stinger or fangs.
3. Clean the wound: Wash the area with soap and water and apply an antiseptic solution to help prevent infection.
4. Apply a cold compress: To reduce swelling, apply a cold compress or ice pack to the affected area for 15-20 minutes.
5. Take antihistamines: If needed, take over-the-counter antihistamines to help reduce itching and swelling.
6. Seek medical help: In case of severe allergies or reactions, seek professional medical assistance right away.
Choking is a medical emergency that can occur in a survival situation. It happens when an object gets stuck in the throat and blocks the flow of air, causing difficulty breathing. Some common causes of choking include food, small objects, and liquids.
If you or someone you know is choking, act quickly to help clear the airway. Here are some possible ways to cure choking in a survival situation:
1. Perform the Heimlich maneuver: If the person is conscious, stand behind them and wrap your arms around their waist. Make a fist with one hand and place it slightly above their belly button, then grab it with the other hand and press into the abdomen with a quick upward thrust.
If you are alone with no around to help you, then you will need to perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself.
2. Perform abdominal thrusts: If the Heimlich maneuver is not successful, ask the person to bend over and give them five back blows between their shoulder blades while supporting their chest.
3. Perform chest thrusts: If the back blows are unsuccessful, place your hands in the center of the person’s chest and give five firm thrusts.
4. Seek medical help: If the person is unconscious, start CPR immediately and call for professional medical help as soon as possible.
Seizures can occur in a survival situation and require immediate medical attention. They are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in involuntary body movements, confusion, or loss of consciousness.
Here are some possible ways to treat seizures in a survival situation:
1. Keep the person safe: Move any furniture or objects out of the way and make sure there is nothing nearby that can cause injury.
2. Make sure the person is lying down: Position their head to one side for easier breathing.
3. Loosen tight clothing: Remove any restrictive clothing or jewelry from around the neck, arms, or waist.
4. Time the seizure: Note the time when the seizure began and how long it lasted.
5. Stay with the person until they regain consciousness: If they are breathing after regaining consciousness, then put then into the recovery position (shown in the video above). Comfort them and stay with them until they become fully alert and oriented again.
6. Seek medical help: If this is a first-time seizure, call for professional medical help right away.
Stomach aches can range from mild to severe and are caused by indigestion, food poisoning, viruses, or other illnesses. In a survival situation, it’s important to identify the cause of the stomach ache in order to treat it properly.
Here are some possible ways to treat a stomach ache in a survival situation:
1. Rest and drink plenty of fluids: If the stomach ache is caused by gas or indigestion, resting and drinking plenty of fluids can help relieve the pain.
2. Avoid solid food: Depending on the cause, it might be better to avoid eating solid foods until the pain subsides.
3. Take over-the-counter medication: If needed, take antacids or anti-diarrheal medications to help relieve the symptoms.
4. Seek medical help: In case of severe pain, seek professional medical assistance as soon as possible.
No matter what type of medical emergency you encounter in a survival situation, it is important to seek professional medical help as soon as possible. While it can be difficult to predict an emergency, knowing how to recognize and treat the common ones can help you save lives in an emergency. So make sure you always have a basic knowledge of first aid and CPR for any potential medical emergencies.